Overview

The Ninth Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention will take place in Geneva, Switzerland, from 28 November to 16 December 2022.

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Information for Participants

On 29 September 2022, the Implementation Support Unit published a note providing information on attending the Review Conference. Those wishing to attend the Review Conference should consult the information note and then click below to register.

President-Designate letter dated on 21st November 2022

Officers

PRESIDENT-DESIGNATE - LEONARDO BENCINI

Graduated in International Relations at the University of Florence, 1991

Joined Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1993

1993-1997, at the Political Affairs Directorate, responsible for human rights issues

1997-1998, at the Political Affairs Directorate, Research and Planning Unit

1998-2001, Consul at the Consulate General of Italy in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

2001-2005, Deputy Head of Mission at the Embassy of Italy to Norway and Iceland, Oslo

2005-2010, Deputy Head of UN Office, Multilateral Political Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in charge of United Nations issues (reform of the UNSC, peace-keeping, peacebuilding)

2010-2014, First Counsellor, Head of the Trade and Economic Section, Embassy of Italy to the Russian Federation and to Turkmenistan, Moscow

2014-2018, Consul General at the Consulate General of Italy in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation

2018-2019, Minister Plenipotentiary, Directorate-General for Development Cooperation, MFA, in charge of communication

2019-2022 Director of Strategy, Global Processes and International Organisations, Directorate-General for Development Cooperation, MFA. In charge of global health issues

From May 2022, Ambassador, Permanent Representative to the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva

Documents

Pre-session Documents

BWC/CONF.IX/1 - Provisional agenda for the Ninth Review Conference

BWC/CONF.IX/1/Add.1  - Annotated provisional agenda for the Ninth Review Conference – Advance Version

BWC/CONF.IX/2 - Draft rules of procedure of the Ninth Review Conference

BWC/CONF.IX/3 - Provisional indicative programme of work - Submitted by the President-Designate - Advance Version

BWC/CONF.IX/MISC.1/REV.1 - Revised provisional list of participants

BWC/CONF.IX/PC/10 - Final report of the Preparatory Committee

Background Documents

BWC/CONF.IX/PC/3 - History and operation of the confidence-building measures - Background information document submitted by the Implementation Support Unit

BWC/CONF.IX/PC/4 - The overall financial status of the Convention and financial implications of proposals for follow-on action after the Ninth Review Conference - Background information document submitted by the Implementation Support Unit

BWC/CONF.IX/PC/5 - Additional understandings and agreements reached by previous Review Conferences relating to each article of the Convention - Background information document submitted by the Implementation Support Unit

BWC/CONF.IX/PC/6 - Common understandings reached by the Meetings of States Parties during the intersessional programme held from 2017 to 2020 - Background information document submitted by the Implementation Support Unit

BWC/CONF.IX/PC/7 - Status of universalization of the Convention - Background information document submitted by the Implementation Support Unit

BWC/CONF.IX/PC/8 - Report of the Implementation Support Unit on the implementation of its mandate, 2017-2022 - Submitted by the Implementation Support Unit

BWC/CONF.IX/4 - Compliance by States Parties with all their obligations under the Convention (advance versions of inputs received from: ChinaColombiaCubaFinlandFranceKyrgyzstanMexicoNorwayQatarRepublic of Korea, Russian Federation (EN RU), Saudi ArabiaSerbiaSouth AfricaSwedenSwitzerlandthe United Kingdomthe United States)

BWC/CONF.IX/5 - Implementation of Article VII (advance versions of inputs received from: ColombiaFinlandFranceSaudi ArabiaSerbiaSouth AfricaSwedenSwitzerlandthe United Kingdomthe United States)

BWC/CONF.IX/6 - Implementation of Article X (advance versions of inputs received from: ChinaColombiaCubaFinlandFranceMexicoQatarRepublic of KoreaSaudi ArabiaSerbiaSouth Africa, SwedenSwitzerlandthe United Kingdomthe United States)

BWC/CONF.IX/7 - New scientific and technological developments relevant to the Convention (advance versions of inputs received from: CubaSwitzerlandthe United Kingdomthe United States)

Working Papers

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.1 - “Strengthening National, Sub-Regional and International Capacities to Prepare for and Respond to the Deliberate Use of Biological Weapons”: Final Project Report - Submitted by Japan

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.2 - Proposal for inclusion in the final document of the Ninth Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention Regarding the Establishment of a Temporary Experts Working Group - Submitted by Canada and the Netherlands

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.2/Rev.1 - Proposal for inclusion in the final document of the Ninth Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention Regarding the Establishment of a Temporary Experts Working Group - Submitted by Canada and the Netherlands

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.3 - Concept note on the creation of an International Agency for Biological Safety (IABS) - Submitted by Kazakhstan

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.4 - Conference on Kazakhstan’s Initiative of an International Agency for Biological Safety (IABS). 12 April 2022.Summary of discussions - Submitted by Kazakhstan

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.5 - Proposal for inclusion in the final document of the Ninth Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention regarding the establishment of a Working Group to create the International Agency for Biological Safety (IABS) - Submitted by Kazakhstan

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.5/Rev.1 - Proposal for inclusion in the final document of the Ninth Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention regarding the establishment of a Working Group to create the International Agency for Biological Safety (IABS) - Submitted by Kazakhstan

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.6 - El bloqueo económico, comercial y financiero de los Estados Unidos contra Cuba como violación del Artículo X de la Convención sobre Armas Biológicas - Presentado por Cuba

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.7 - Implementación Nacional de la Convención sobre Armas Biológicas - Presentado por Cuba

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.8 - Propuesta para reiniciar negociaciones de un protocolo jurídicamente vinculante para el fortalecimiento de la Convención de Armas Biológicas - Presentado por Cuba

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.9 - Advances in Science and Technology: Impact on Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic and Relevance to Article VII of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention - Submitted by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.10 - Establishing a BTWC Science and Technology Advisory Process - Submitted by Switzerland

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.11 - A proposal for amending the Convention to incorporate therein the explicit "Prohibition of the Use of Biological Weapons" - Submitted by the Islamic Republic of Iran

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.12 - Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention. Operationalising mobile biomedical units to deliver protection against biological weapons, investigate their alleged use, and to suppress epidemics of various etiology - Submitted by the Russian Federation

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.13 - Proposal to enhance the format of confidence-building measures under the Biological Weapons Convention - Submitted by the Russian Federation

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.14 - Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention: Proposal for the establishment of a Scientific Advisory Committee - Submitted by the Russian Federation

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.15 - Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC): Proposal for the BWC Article VI Implementation - Submitted by the Russian Federation

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.16 - Proposal for inclusion in the final document of the Ninth Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention - Submitted by the Russian Federation

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.17 - Implementation of Article VII - Submitted by South Africa

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.18 - “Strengthening the Capacity of Biological Weapons Convention National Contact Points in Southeast Asia”: Final Project Report - Submitted by Japan

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.19 - The BWC One Health Surveillance Network - Building an international network of institutions for the surveillance, prevention, preparedness, response and assistance in case of biological incidents against agriculture, livestock and biodiversity - Submitted by Argentina and Brazil

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.20 - Exploring Science and Technology Review Mechanisms under the Biological Weapons Convention - Submitted by Canada and Germany

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.21 - An exchange Platform for voluntary transparency exercises: Terms of reference - Submitted by Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, Luxembourg, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands and Spain

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.22 - Proposal for the establishment of a database for assistance under Article VII of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention - Submitted by India and France

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.23 - Proposal for establishment of an international platform dedicated to biosecurity and biosafety: SecBio - Submitted by France, Senegal and Togo

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.24 - Report on Implementation of Article X of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention - Submitted by the United States of America

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.25 - Confidence-Building Measures 30 years later – a good time for renewed consideration? - Submitted by the United States of America

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.26 - Outline of Proposals to Enhance the Institutional Machinery of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) in the Context of Cooperation and Assistance Under Article X - Submitted by Finland, Georgia, Norway and the Philippines

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.27 - An Analytical Approach: Biosafety and Biosecurity Oversight Framework - Submitted by Canada

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.28 - Laboratory Incidents Notification Canada (LINC) Program Overview - Submitted by Canada

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.29 - Reinforcing Laboratory Biosafety and Biosecurity Internationally - Submitted by Canada, Germany, Mexico, and the United States of America

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.30 - Article I: Reinforcing the core prohibition of the Biological Weapons Convention - Submitted by the United States of America

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.31 - Advances in the Field of Biological Science and Technology and Urgent Need to Maximize Their Availability to Developing Countries - Submitted by the Islamic Republic of Iran

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.32 - Establishment of a National Inventory of Dangerous Pathogens. An illustrative example of the implementation of Articles IV and X - Submitted by Sri Lanka and the Netherlands

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.33 - Reinforcing the Mechanism of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction - Submitted by China

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.34 - Promoting International Cooperation on Peaceful Uses under the Framework of the Biological Weapons Convention - Submitted by China

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.35 - Proposals for Strengthening Implementation of Article X of the Biological Weapons Convention - Submitted by the Islamic Republic of Iran

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.36 - Biorisk management standards and their role in BTWC implementation -Submitted by Austria, Belgium, Chile, France, Germany, Iraq, Ireland, Mexico, Netherlands, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Spain, Thailand and the United States

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.37 - Position of the European Union relating to the Ninth Review Conference of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention - Submitted by the European Union

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.38 - Support of the European Union and its Member States to Strengthening Biosafety and Biosecurity Globally - Submitted by the European Union

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.39 - Investigation framework to strengthen the Biological Weapons Convention - Submitted by Japan

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.40 - Approach to Strengthening Measures for Emerging Infectious Diseases based on Lessons Learned from the Ebola Outbreak - Submitted by Japan

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.41 - “Strengthening National, Sub-Regional and International Capacities to Prepare for and Respond to the Deliberate Useof Biological Weapons”: Project update - Submitted by Japan

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.42 - Online Training Course for Biological Weapons Convention National Contact Points in Southeast Asia: A Model Approach for Other Regions - Submitted by Japan

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.43 - “Strengthening National, Sub-Regional and International Capacities to Prepare for and Respond to the Deliberate Use of Biological Weapons”: Project update - Submitted by Japan

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.44 - Concept note and chart produced by the Chairperson of the 2020 Meeting of Experts on Review of Developments in the Field of Science and Technology Related to the Convention - Submitted by Japan

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.46 - The decision of the Russian Federation to withdraw from the Eastern European Group of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (BTWC) - Submitted by Russian Federation

BWC/CONF.IX/WP.47 - Proposals for the Final Document of the Ninth Review Conference of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC): Article by Article - Submitted by the Republic of Azerbaijan on behalf of the Group of the Non-Aligned Movement and Other States to the BWC

Side Events

Programme of Side events 

Ninth BWC Review Conference 

All meeting rooms are located in building E of the Palais des Nations. 

28-16
November - December2022
Exhibit “Women Making the World Safe from Biological and Toxin Weapons: 50 Years of the BWC”Organizers: Australia, Panama, the Philippines, Sweden, the European Union, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) 
Meeting format: In-person 
All delegates are invited to the opening cocktail of the exhibit, which will take place on 28 November 2022, 18:00-19:00 CET
All-dayin front of room XIX, at the hall leading to Room XX, Third Floor of E building, Palais des Nations
28
November2022
The BWC Global Forum: Biotech, Biosecurity & Beyond  Organizers: Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security 
Meeting format: In-person 
9:00-10:00 CET  Room XXIV
28
November2022
Enhancing pandemic preparedness and international cooperation in the Biological Weapons Convention: capitalizing on experiences from the COVID-19 Pandemic Organizers: Italy
Meeting format: In-person
Concept Note
13:00-15:00 CET Room XIX 
28
November2022
EU CBRN Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence Organizers: European Union
Meeting format: In-person

13:00-15:00 CET Room XXIV 
28
November2022
Opening cocktail of the Exhibit “ Women Making the World Safe from Biological and Toxin Weapons: 50 Years of the BWC”Organizers: Australia, Panama, the Philippines, Sweden, the European Union, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR)
All delegates are invited to the opening cocktail of the exhibit, which will take place on 28 November 2022, 18:00 - 19:00 CET. The Exhibit will be displayed from the 28th of November to the 16th of December.
18:00-19:00 CET  Location: in front of room XIX, at the hall leading to Room XX, Third Floor of E building, Palais des Nations
28
November2022
Reception for the opening of the 9th BTWC Review Conference, with Under-Secretary-General and High Representative for Disarmament Affairs, Ms. Izumi Nakamitsu  Organizers: France
Meeting format: In-person
18:00-19:30 CET  Location: Palais des Nations, Mezzanine (Building E,
Gate 40, 2nd Floor)
29
November2022
Initiative to establish the International Agency for Biological Safety (IABS)Organizers: Kazakhstan and GCSP
Meeting format: In-person 
09:00-10:00 CETRoom XXIII 
29
November2022
The Biological Weapons Convention and Tianjin Biosecurity Guidelines for Codes of Conduct for Scientists Organizers: Center for Biosafety Research and Strategy of Tianjin University and China Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
Meeting format: In-person 
09:00-10:00 CETRoom XXIV
29
November2022
Article X In the Context Of The Ninth BWC Review Conference: Conference on “Promoting Beneficial Technologies”Organizers: Norway and BWC ISU 
Meeting format: Hybrid (Delegates can join in person or virtually) 
Concept Note
Agenda
Link: Join the meeting  
13:00 – 15:00 CETRoom XXIII
29
November2022
The Impact of Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, & Accessibility in the Biological Weapons ConventionOrganizers: The event will be hosted by Ambassador Bonnie Jenkins, US Undersecretary of State for Arms Control & Security and Undersecretary General Izumi Nakamitsu, UN High Representative for Disarmament Affairs 
Meeting format: In-person
The panelists will discuss ongoing efforts to strengthen diversity, gender equality, and inclusive engagement in the BWC and consider the importance of these initiatives in the context of biological weapons disarmament.
13:30 – 15:00 CETRoom XXI
30
November2022
Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. Proposals for the establishment of a Scientific Advisory Committee and an Open-ended Working groupOrganizers: Russian Federation 
Meeting format: In-person 
09:00 – 10:00 CETRoom XXIII
30
November2022
Youth for Biosecurity Recommendations for the Ninth Review ConferenceOrganizers: UNODA in the framework of EU Council Decision 2019/97, iGEM, IFBA, Open Philanthropy, NTI-Bio, Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security 
Meeting format: Hybrid
Agenda
Concept note
Link: Join the meeting
09:00 – 10:00 CETRoom XXIV
30
November2022
Article X In The Context Of The Ninth BWC Review Conference: Conference on “Promoting Beneficial Technologies”Organizers: Norway and BWC ISU 
Meeting format: Hybrid (Delegates can join in-person or virtually) 
Link: Join the meeting  
13:00 – 15:00 CETRoom XXIII
30
November2022
Science for Diplomats – A hands-on exercise for policy makers Organizers: UNODA in the framework of EU Council Decision 2021/2072 
Meeting format: In-person 
To attend the event, please register here: Link  
Concept Note
13:15 – 14:45 CETBalcony in front of room XIX
01
December2022
Design against crime: A biological security strategy to safeguard science and societyOrganizers: Bronic Ltd. 
Meeting format: Virtual 
Link to the meeting
Flyer
09:00 – 10:00 CETVirtual
01
December2022
EU Council Decisions in support of the BWC: national implementation highlights and support of the preparations for the Ninth Review Conference (including the launch of the National Implementation Guide)Organizers: UNODA in the framework of EU Council Decisions 2019/97 and 2021/2072 
Meeting format: In-person 
Concept note and agenda
13:00 – 15:00 CETRoom XIX
02
December2022
Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. Proposals to enhance the format of the confidence-building measures under the BWC and for the BWC Article VI ImplementationOrganizers: Russian Federation 
Meeting format: In-person 
09:00 – 10:00 CETRoom XXVII
02
December2022
Biorisk Management : Involving Diverse Actors for Better Implementation of the BWCOrganizers: Republic of Korea
Meeting format: In-person 
Concept note
09:15 – 10:00 CETRoom XXI
02
December2022
VERTIC legislative assistance for implementation of the BWCOrganizers: VERTIC (The Verification Research, Training and Information Centre) and Norway 
Meeting format: In-person 
09:00 – 10:00 CETRoom XIX
02
December2022
National Biosecurity Education Programmes for Life Scientists on “Dual-Use”: Lessons from the Experience of Ukraine and Japan 2010-2022Organizers: National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Bradford University (UK) and Japan 
Meeting format: In-person 
13:00 – 15:00 CETRoom XXVII
02
December2022
Biosecurity in the Americas: regional threat assessmentOrganizers: Inter-American Committee against Terrorism of the Organization of American States (OAS/CICTE)
Meeting format: Virtual 
Link to the meeting  
14:00 – 15:00 CETVirtual
02
December2022
Biorisk Awareness across Stakeholder CommunitiesOrganizers: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) and the United Kingdom
Meeting format: In-person 
Agenda
13:15 – 14:45 CETRoom XIX
05 - 09
December2022
Exhibit “The 100-year anniversary of the Russian State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service: A century on guard of health and well-being"Organizers: Russian Federation. Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being (Rospotrebnadzor)
Meeting format: in person 
Flyer
All delegates are invited to the opening cocktail of the exhibit, which will take place on 5 December 2022, 13:00 CET
All-day Room: space near room XIX and “the Passerelle”,
Third Floor of E building,
Palais des Nations
05
December2022
Briefing on the outcomes of the Consultative meeting initiated by the Russian Federation under Article V of the BTWCOrganizers: Russian Federation
Meeting format: In-person 
09:00 – 10:00 CETRoom XXIII
05
December2022
The German Biosecurity ProgrammeOrganizers: German Federal Foreign Office, Robert Koch Institute 
Meeting format: In-person 
13:00 – 15:00 CETRoom XXIII
06
December2022
Safeguarding Bioscience and Biotechnology: IBBIS and the International Common Mechanism for DNA Synthesis ScreeningOrganizers: Nuclear Threat Initiative Global Biological Policy and Programs 
Meeting format: Hybrid 
Link to the meeting
8:00 – 9:30 CETIntercontinental Hotel Geneva
06
December2022
Regulating Transit and Transshipment Across Weapons of Mass Destruction and Conventional Weapons – What has worked, what are the challenges and what is the way forward?  Organizers: Control Arms
Meeting format: Virtual 
Link to the meeting
13:30 – 15:00 CETVirtual
06
December2022
Supporting the universalization and effective implementation of the BWC in AfricaOrganizers: Global Partnership, Africa Center for Disease Control and BWC ISU 
Meeting format: In-person 
Flyer
13:00 – 15:00 CETRoom XIX
07
December2022
A Joint Assessment Mechanism for High-Consequence Biological Events of Unknown OriginOrganizers: Nuclear Threat Initiative Global Biological Policy and Programs 
Meeting format: In-person 
09:00 – 10:00 CETRoom XXIII
07
December2022
Biosecurity Education in Support of Implementation of the Tianjin Biosecurity Guidelines: Urgent need for Biological Security Education globally and co-ordinatelyOrganizers: Center for Biosafety Research and Strategy of Tianjin University, and China Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Meeting format: In-person 
13:00 – 15:00 CETRoom XXIII
08
December2022
Efforts to strengthen the implementation of the BWC in Southeast AsiaOrganizers: European Union, Japan, Philippines,  and UNICRI 
Meeting format: In-person 
Concept Note, Programme
09:00 – 10:00 CETRoom XXIII
08
December2022
BACAC Conference ‘Covid-19 Lessons Learned’ impact of a pandemic on BWCOrganizers: Biosafety Association for Central Asia and Caucasus (BACAC), EU CBRN Centres of Excellence 
Meeting format: Virtual 
Link to the meeting
09:00 – 10:00 CETVirtual
08
December2022
Activities to support the United Nations Secretary-General’s MechanismOrganizers: German Federal Foreign Office, Robert Koch Institute 
Meeting format: In-person 
13:00 – 15:00 CETRoom XXIII
08
December2022
Countering Disinformation on Bioweapons and Biological laboratoriesOrganizers: Canada and King's College London
Meeting format: Hybrid 
TBCPermanent Mission of Canada
09
December2022
Mobile biomedical units: Perspectives of their operationalization to strengthen the BTWCOrganizers: Russian Federation 
Meeting format: In-person 
09:00 – 10:00 CETRoom XXIII
09
December2022
BioterrorismOrganizers: Slovenia and Germany 
Meeting format: Hybrid (in person and virtual)
Concept note
Link to the meeting
13:00 – 15:00 CETRoom XXIII
09
December2022
Technological opportunities for building confidence in compliance with the BWCOrganizers: UNIDIR 
Meeting format: Virtual 
Link: https://unidir.org/TechVerifyBWC
13:15 – 14:30 CETVirtual
09
December2022
Maximum Containment Labs and Biorisk ManagementOrganizers: King’s College London 
Meeting format: Virtual 
Link for registration: https://bit.ly/3gxPbGK
13:00 – 15:00 CETVirtual
12
December2022
Implementation by the Russian Federation of Article X of the BTWC (co-operation and assistance)Organizers: Russian Federation 
Meeting format: In-person 
09:00 – 10:00 CETRoom XXIII
12
December2022
Global guidance framework for the responsible use of the life sciences: mitigating biorisks and governing dual-use research: from guidance to actionOrganizers: World Health Organization 
Meeting format: Hybrid
Link to the meeting
09:00 – 10:00 CETRoom XXV
12
December2022
The Legal Effects of the Review Conference Organizers: CBWNet 
Meeting format: In-person 
13:00 – 15:00 CETRoom XXIII
12
December2022
EU Targeted Initiative on export controls for CBRN-relevant dual-use technologiesOrganizers: European Union, European Commission, International Science and Technology Centre (ISTC, Kazakhstan), Science and Technology Centre in Ukraine (STCU, Ukraine)
Meeting format: In-person 
13:00 – 15:00 CETRoom XXV
13
December2022
Stakeholder perspectives on the BWCOrganizers: UNIDIR
Meeting format: Hybrid
Link to the meeting
More information: https://unidir.org/StakeholdersBWC
09:00 – 10:00 CETRoom XXIII
13
December2022
Addressing misconceptions about chemical and biological weapons and related legal frameworksOrganizers: The Verification Research, Training and Information Centre (VERTIC) with speakers from the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Meeting format: In-person 
13:00 – 15:00 CETRoom XXIII
14
December2022
Assessing the SecBio Platform ProposalOrganizers: UNIDIR
Meeting format: In-person 
More information: https://unidir.org/AssessingSecBio
09:00 – 10:00 CETRoom XXIII
14
December2022
Grand Challenge for Sustainable Laboratories: Innovation Solutions for Diagnostics LaboratoriesOrganizers: Canada, in partnership with the World Organization for Animal Health
Meeting format: In-person 
13:00 – 15:00 CETRoom XXIII
16
December2022
Medical Therapeutics on Biological and Toxin Warfare Agents and Regenerative Medicine Stakeholders for Injured Civilian and Service MembersOrganizers: Center for Countermeasure against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents (CCACBWA) 
Meeting format: In-person 
9:00 – 10:00 CETRoom XXIII

Background

Think Zone

Following requests from States Parties and other stakeholders, the Implementation Support Unit has created this “Think Zone” in order to aggregate information that may be of use to States Parties in their preparations for the Ninth BWC Review Conference.

On these pages you will find links to articles, papers and other resources. These links are provided for information purposes only. The views and opinions expressed in the publications are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the ISU, the President-Designate of the Review Conference or the States Parties. Items are posted here as a service to website readers and posting does not imply endorsement. The ISU is not responsible for the content of third party websites.

This page will be updated as and when additional items become available. If you would like to suggest something to be included on this page, please email the document or a link directly to the ISU at bwc@un.org.

General Articles

Bajema, Natasha E., et al. Understanding the Threat of Biological Weapons in a World with COVID-19. The Janne E. Nolan Center on Strategic Weapons, an institute of The Council on Strategic Risk, May 2022, p. 74. https://councilonstrategicrisks.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/Understanding-the-Threat-of-Biological-Weapons-in-a-World-With-COVID_2022_2_17.pdf

Bowman, Katherine, and Jo L. Husbands. “Engaging Scientists in Biosecurity: Lessons from the Biological Weapons Convention.” The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 27, no. 4–6, Sept. 2020, pp. 557–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/10736700.2020.1827840.

Cross, Glenn. “Wrestling with Imponderables: Assessing Perceptions of Biological-Weapons Utility.” The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 27, no. 4–6, Sept. 2020, pp. 343–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/10736700.2020.1858621.

Cross, Glenn, and Lynn Klotz. “Twenty-First Century Perspectives on the Biological Weapon Convention: Continued Relevance or Toothless Paper Tiger.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, vol. 76, no. 4, July 2020, pp. 185–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/00963402.2020.1778365.

Dalaqua, Renata Hessmann, et al. Understanding Sex- and Gender-Related Impacts of Chemical and Biological Weapons. 2019. https://unidir.org/sites/default/files/2019-11/Missing%20Links-3.pdf.

Epstein, Gerald L. “Biodefense and the Return to Great-Power Competition.” The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 27, no. 4–6, Sept. 2020, pp. 409–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/10736700.2020.1852751.

Goodman, Michael, and Filippa Lentzos. “Battles of Influence: Deliberate Disinformation and Global Health Security.” Centre for International Governance Innovation, 24 Aug. 2022, https://www.cigionline.org/articles/battles-influence-deliberate-disinformation-and-global-health-security/.

Haider, Naeem. “Chemical and Biological Weapons Conventions: Orienting to Emerging Challenges Through a Cooperative Approach.” Enhancing CBRNE Safety & Security: Proceedings of the SICC 2017 Conference, edited by Andrea Malizia and Marco D’Arienzo, Springer International Publishing, 2018, pp. 253–60. Springer Linkhttps://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-91791-7_29.

Klotz, Lynn C. “Is There a Role for the Biological Weapons Convention in Oversight of Lab-Created Potential Pandemic Pathogens?” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 27 Aug. 2019, https://thebulletin.org/2019/08/is-there-a-role-for-the-biological-weapons-convention-in-oversight-of-lab-created-potential-pandemic-pathogens/.

Lentzos, Filippa, and Jez Littlewood. “Don’t Let Finger-Pointing Doom This Key Treaty against Bioweapons.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 4 Mar. 2022, https://thebulletin.org/2022/03/dont-let-finger-pointing-doom-this-key-treaty-against-bioweapons/.

Mangu, Chacha D. “Biological and Toxin Warfare Convention: Current Status and Future Prospects.” Handbook on Biological Warfare Preparedness, edited by S. J. S Flora and Vidhu Pachauri, Academic Press, 2020, pp. 209–15. ScienceDirecthttps://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812026-2.00011-6.

Office for Disarmament Affairs. Securing Our Common Future: An Agenda for Disarmament. United Nations, 2018. Open WorldCathttps://www.un.org/disarmament/publications/more/securing-our-common-future/.

Saunders, Emma. “Can the Biological Weapons Convention Address New Biothreats?” Chatham House – International Affairs Think Tank, 25 Nov. 2021, https://www.chathamhouse.org/2021/11/can-biological-weapons-convention-address-new-biothreats.

Schoch-Spana, Monica, et al. “Global Catastrophic Biological Risks: Toward a Working Definition.” Health Security, vol. 15, no. 4, Aug. 2017, pp. 323–28. PubMed Centralhttps://doi.org/10.1089/hs.2017.0038.

Assistance and Cooperation

Chaturvedi, Sachin. “Post-COVID-19 Development and Global Governance: The Emerging Role of Science and Technology.” OECD Development Matters, 10 Sept. 2020, https://oecd-development-matters.org/2020/09/10/post-covid-19-development-and-global-governance-the-emerging-role-of-science-and-technology/.

Revill, James, et al. Options for Article X of the Biological Weapons Convention. UNIDIR, 3 Feb. 2022.  https://doi.org/10.37559/WMD/21/BWC/04.

Norlock, Stephanie Marie, et al. “South-to-South Mentoring as a Vehicle for Implementing Sustainable Health Security in Africa.” One Health Outlook, vol. 3, no. 1, Oct. 2021, p. 20. BioMed Centralhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s42522-021-00050-x.

Georgetown University Center for Global Health Science and Security and The Henry L. Stimson Center. Catalogue of Civil Society Assistance to States Parties in Support of Article X of The Biological Weapons Convention. 2020, https://www.stimson.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/2020-CATALOG-OF-CIVIL-SOCIETY-ASSISTANCE-TO-STATES-PARTIES.pdf.

Science and Technology

Alley, Ethan C., et al. “A Machine Learning Toolkit for Genetic Engineering Attribution to Facilitate Biosecurity.” Nature Communications, vol. 11, no. 1, Dec. 2020, p. 6293.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19612-0.

Berger, Kavita M., and Rocco J. Casagrande. “Twentieth-Century Nonproliferation Meets Twenty-First-Century Biotechnology.” The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 27, no. 4–6, Sept. 2020, pp. 541–55.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10736700.2020.1819690.

Brackmann, Maximilian, et al. “Assessing Emerging Technologies from an Arms Control Perspective.” Frontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics, vol. 7, 2022, https://doi.org/10.3389/frma.2022.1012355.

DiEuliis, Diane, and James Giordano. “NCT Magazine July - ‘Designer Biology’ and the Need for Biosecurity-by-Design.” Center for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction, 28 July 2022, http://nct-magazine.com/nct-magazine-july/designer-biology-and-the-need-for-biosecurity-by-design/.

Edwards, Lucien. “We’ve Got to Talk: The Militarization of Biotechnology.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 4 Aug. 2017, https://thebulletin.org/2017/08/weve-got-to-talk-the-militarization-of-biotechnology/.

El Karoui, Meriem, et al. “Future Trends in Synthetic Biology—A Report.” Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, vol. 7, Aug. 2019, p. 175.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2019.00175.

Esvelt, Kevin M. “Inoculating Science against Potential Pandemics and Information Hazards.” PLOS Pathogens, edited by Carolyn B. Coyne, vol. 14, no. 10, Oct. 2018, p. e1007286.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007286.

Field, Matt. “Gene-Editing on Autopilot: What Could Go Wrong?” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 5 Mar. 2019, https://thebulletin.org/2019/03/gene-editing-on-autopilot-what-could-go-wrong/.

Hamburg, Margaret A., et al. “Taking Action to Safeguard Bioscience and Protect Against Future Global Biological Risks.” Science & Diplomacy, 9 Feb. 2022, https://www.sciencediplomacy.org/perspective/2022/taking-action-safeguard-bioscience-and-protect-against-future-global-biological.

Hamele, Cait, et al. Leveraging Advances in Biotechnology to Strengthen Biological Weapons Convention Verification Protocols. June 2022. https://www.nti.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/Leveraging-Advances-in-Biotechnology_FinalRevisions_Rev3.pdf.

International Working Group on Strengthening the Culture of Biosafety, Biosecurity, and Responsible Conduct in the Life Sciences (IWG). A Guide to Training and Information Resources on the Culture of Biosafety, Biosecurity, and Responsible Conduct in the Life Sciences. 2021, https://biosecuritycentral.org/static/5d1e316cd98429d868f217ff393a354b/Culture%20of%20Biosafety%20and%20Biosecurity%20Guide%20to%20Training%20and%20Information_2021.pdf.

Kosal, Margaret E. “CRISPR and New Genetic-Engineering Techniques: Emerging Challenges to Strategic Stability and Nonproliferation.” The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 27, no. 4–6, Sept. 2020, pp. 389–408. https://doi.org/10.1080/10736700.2020.1879464.

Lentzos, Filippa. “How to Protect the World from Ultra-Targeted Biological Weapons.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, vol. 76, no. 6, Nov. 2020, pp. 302–08. https://doi.org/10.1080/00963402.2020.1846412.

Lewis, Gregory. “Horsepox Synthesis: A Case of the Unilateralist’s Curse?” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 19 Feb. 2018, https://thebulletin.org/2018/02/horsepox-synthesis-a-case-of-the-unilateralists-curse/.

Lewis, Gregory. “The Biosecurity Benefits of Genetic Engineering Attribution.” Nature Communications, vol. 11, no. 1, Dec. 2020, p. 6294.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19149-2.

Millett, Piers, et al. “The Synthetic-Biology Challenges for Biosecurity: Examples from IGEM.” The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 27, no. 4–6, Sept. 2020, pp. 443–58. https://doi.org/10.1080/10736700.2020.1866884.

Millett, Kathryn, et al. “Cyber-Biosecurity Risk Perceptions in the Biotech Sector.” Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, vol. 7, 2019. Frontiers, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fbioe.2019.00136.

Musunuri, Sriharshita, et al. “Rapid Proliferation of Pandemic Research: Implications for Dual-Use Risks.” MBio, edited by Paul Keim, vol. 12, no. 5, Oct. 2021, pp. e01864-21.  https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01864-21.

Nixdorff, Kathryn. “Developments in Systems Biology: Implications for Health and Biochemical Security.” The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 27, no. 4–6, Sept. 2020, pp. 459–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/10736700.2020.1865632.

Peters, Alexandra. “The Global Proliferation of High-Containment Biological Laboratories: Understanding the Phenomenon and Its Implications.” Revue Scientifique et Technique de l’OIE, vol. 37, no. 3, Dec. 2018, pp. 857–83.  https://doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.3.2892.

Revill, James, et al. Exploring Science and Technology Review Mechanisms Under the Biological Weapons Convention. The United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 14 June 2021.  https://doi.org/10.37559/SECTEC/2021/SandTreviews/01.

Spiez Laboratory. Spiez CONVERGENCE: Report on the Fourth Workshop 10, 13 – 15 September 2021. Nov. 2021, https://www.spiezlab.admin.ch/en/home/meta/refconvergence.html.

Spiez Laboratory. Spiez CONVERGENCE: Report on the Third Workshop 11 – 14 September 2018. Nov. 2018, https://www.spiezlab.admin.ch/en/home/meta/refconvergence.html.

Trump, Benjamin D. Emerging Threats of Synthetic Biology and Biotechnology Addressing Security and Resilience Issues. Springer Netherlands, 2021, https://directory.doabooks.org/handle/20.500.12854/72042.

United Nations. Report of the Secretary-General: Current Developments in Science and Technology and Their Potential Impact on International Security and Disarmament Efforts. 2020, https://front.un-arm.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/stu-science-tech-sg-rpt-2020-rev1.pdf.

Wang, Fangzhong, and Weiwen Zhang. “Synthetic Biology: Recent Progress, Biosafety and Biosecurity Concerns, and Possible Solutions.” Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity, vol. 1, no. 1, Mar. 2019, pp. 22–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobb.2018.12.003.

Warmbrod, Kelsey Lane, et al. Advances in Science and Technology in the Life Sciences: Implications for Biosecurity and Arms Control. UNIDIR, 2020, https://unidir.org/sites/default/files/2020-08/Advances%20in%20Science%20and%20Technology%20in%20the%20Life%20Sciences%20-%20Final.pdf.

National Implementation

Bowman, Katherine, et al. “Assessing the Risks and Benefits of Advances in Science and Technology: Exploring the Potential of Qualitative Frameworks.” Health Security, vol. 18, no. 3, June 2020, pp. 186–94. https://doi.org/10.1089/hs.2019.0134.

Brizee, Sabrina, Mark W. J. van Passel, et al. “Development of a Biosecurity Checklist for Laboratory Assessment and Monitoring.” Applied Biosafety, vol. 24, no. 2, June 2019, pp. 83–89.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1535676019838077.

Brizee, Sabrina, Musa Kwehangana, et al. “Establishment of a National Inventory of Dangerous Pathogens in the Republic of Uganda.” Health Security, vol. 17, no. 3, 2019, pp. 169–73. unog.primo.exlibrisgroup.comhttps://doi.org/10.1089/hs.2018.0112.

Cameron, Beth, et al. Preventing Global Catastrophic Biological Risks: Lessons and Recommendations from a Tabletop Exercise Held at the 2020 Munich Security Conference. Nuclear Threat Initiative, 2020, https://media.nti.org/documents/NTI_BIO_TTX_RPT_FINAL.pdf.

Evans, Sam Weiss, et al. “Embrace Experimentation in Biosecurity Governance.” Science, vol. 368, no. 6487, Apr. 2020, pp. 138–40.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aba2932.

Koblentz, Gregory, and Filippa Lentzos. “A Plan B to Strengthen Biosafety and Biosecurity: A ‘Minilateral’ Approach Is Needed to Strengthen Global Biorisk Management.” Council on Foreign Relations, 15 Nov. 2022, https://www.thinkglobalhealth.org/article/plan-b-strengthen-biosafety-and-biosecurity.

Lentzos, Filippa. “How Do We Control Dangerous Biological Research?” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 12 Apr. 2018, https://thebulletin.org/2018/04/how-do-we-control-dangerous-biological-research/.

Lentzos, Filippa. “Strengthen the Taboo against Biological and Chemical Weapons.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 26 July 2018, https://thebulletin.org/2018/07/strengthen-the-taboo-against-biological-and-chemical-weapons/.

Lentzos, Filippa, et al. The Urgent Need for an Overhaul of Global Biorisk Management. Apr. 2022, https://ctc.westpoint.edu/the-urgent-need-for-an-overhaul-of-global-biorisk-management/.                                                                 

Novossiolova, Tatyana A., et al. “The Vital Importance of a Web of Prevention for Effective Biosafety and Biosecurity in the Twenty-First Century.” One Health Outlook, vol. 3, no. 1, Sept. 2021, p. 17. PubMedhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s42522-021-00049-4.

Rodgers, Joseph, et al. “How to Make Sure the Labs Researching the Most Dangerous Pathogens Are Safe and Secure.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 2 July 2021, https://thebulletin.org/2021/07/how-to-make-sure-the-labs-researching-the-most-dangerous-pathogens-are-safe-and-secure/.

Sun, Tao, et al. “Challenges and Recent Progress in the Governance of Biosecurity Risks in the Era of Synthetic Biology.” Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity, vol. 4, no. 1, 2022, pp. 59–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobb.2022.02.002.

Vennis, Iris M., et al. “Systematic Approach towards Establishing a National Inventory of Dangerous Pathogens.” Global Health Action, vol. 14, no. 1, 2021, pp. 1971866–1971866. https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2021.1971866.

Assistance, Preparedness, and Response

Ackerman, Gary A., et al. “Why COVID Probably Hasn’t Helped Bioterrorists, despite Fears.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 11 Aug. 2022, https://thebulletin.org/2022/08/why-covid-probably-hasnt-helped-bioterrorists-despite-fears/.

Bell, Jessica A., and Jennifer B. Nuzzo. Global Health Security Index: Advancing Collective Action and Accountability Amid Global Crisis. Nuclear Threat Initiative, Dec. 2021, https://www.ghsindex.org/.

Carus, W. Seth. “Perspectives on ‘Bioterrorism’ in the Nineteenth Century: The Philosophy of Mass Destruction, Fake News, and Other Fictions.” The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 27, no. 4–6, Sept. 2020, pp. 267–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/10736700.2020.1843252.

Duff, Johnathan H., et al. “A Global Public Health Convention for the 21st Century.” The Lancet Public Health, vol. 6, no. 6, June 2021, pp. e428–33. www.thelancet.comhttps://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(21)00070-0.

Esvelt, Kevin. “How a Deliberate Pandemic Could Crush Societies and What to Do about It.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 15 Nov. 2022, https://thebulletin.org/2022/11/how-a-deliberate-pandemic-could-crush-societies-and-what-to-do-about-it/.

Global Preparedness Monitoring Board. From Worlds Apart to a World Prepared: Global Preparedness Monitoring Board Report 2021. 2021, https://www.gpmb.org/docs/librariesprovider17/default-document-library/gpmb-annual-report-2021.pdf?sfvrsn=44d10dfa_9.

Gostin, Lawrence O., et al. “An International Agreement on Pandemic Prevention and Preparedness.” JAMA, vol. 326, no. 13, Oct. 2021, pp. 1257–58. Silverchairhttps://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.16104.

Kamradt-Scott, Adam, et al. “Singapore Statement on Global Health Security.” BMJ Global Health, vol. 7, no. 6, June 2022. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2022-009949.

Lehtimaki, Susanna, et al. Independent Review and Investigation Mechanisms to Prevent Future Pandemics: A Proposed Way Forward. United Nations University International Institute for Global Health, Apr. 2021, https://doi.org/10.37941/RR/2021/1.

Naik, Shambhavi, and Aditya Ramanathan. “The New Bioweapons Peril: A Case to Revisit the Biological Weapons Convention.” Indian Public Policy Review, vol. 3, no. 1 (Jan-Feb), 1 (Jan-Feb), Jan. 2022, pp. 59–76. https://doi.org/10.55763/ippr.2022.03.01.004.

Revill, James. “Past as Prologue? The Risk of Adoption of Chemical and Biological Weapons by Non-State Actors in the EU.” European Journal of Risk Regulation, vol. 8, no. 4, Dec. 2017, pp. 626–42. https://doi.org/10.1017/err.2017.35.

United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute. A Prosecutor’s Guide to Chemical and Biological Crimes. May 2022, https://unicri.it/sites/default/files/2022-09/A%20Prosecutor%E2%80%99s%20Guide%20to%20Chemical%20and%20Biological%20Crimes.pdf.

United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorism. Ensuring Effective Interagency Interoperability and Coordinated Communication in Case of Chemical and/or Biological Attacks. 2019, https://www.un.org/sites/www.un.org.counterterrorism/files/uncct_ctitf_wmd_wg_project_publication_final.pdf.

World Health Organization. Report of the Review Committee on the Functioning of the International Health Regulations (2005) during the COVID-19 Response. 30 Apr. 2021, https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/default-source/documents/emergencies/a74_9add1-en.pdf?sfvrsn=d5d22fdf_1&download=true.

World Health Organization. Joint External Evaluation Tool: International Health Regulations (2005). WHO/HSE/GCR/2016.2, World Health Organization, 2016, https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/204368.

Yu, Hanzhi, and Yang Xue. “Biotechnology and Security Threats: National Responses and Prospects for International Cooperation.” Centre for International Governance Innovation, Mar. 2021, p. 18. https://www.cigionline.org/static/documents/documents/no.249.pdf.

Zanders, Jean Pascal. Operationalising Article VII of the Biological Weapons Convention. United Nations, 2022, https://www.the-trench.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/202204-BTWC-ISU-Article-VII-Operationalisation.pdf.

Zanders, Jean Pascal, et al. “Tabletop Exercise (TTX) on the Implementation of Article VII of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC).” Fondation Pour La Recherche Stratégique (FRS), Dec. 2019, https://front.un-arm.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/20191206BTWCArticleVII-TTXGenevareportfinal-EN.pdf.

Zanders, Jean Pascal. “Meaning of Emergency Assistance: Origins and Negotiation of Article VII of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.” The Trench, Aug. 2018, p. 39. https://www.the-trench.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Meaning-of-Emergency-Assistance-Final.pdf.

Lampalzer, Alex and Santori, Valeria: “The operationalization of Article VII of the Biological Weapons Convention: Efforts to enhance assistance capacities in response to deliberate bio-events”. VERTIC Verification & Implementation 2019. July 2020. pp. 21-44 https://www.vertic.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/VI-Volume-2-2019-WEB-1.pdf

BWC Working Methods

Burck, Kristoffer, et al. “The Legal Effect of the BWC Review Conferences.” CBWNet Working Paper, no. 02, Nov. 2022. https://cbwnet.org/media/pages/publications/working-paper/legal-effect-bwc-review-conference/0a125b6855-1668500484/cbwnet-wp-02_legal-effect-of-bwc-revcons.pdf.

Edwards, Brett, et al. “Meeting the Challenges of Chemical and Biological Weapons: Strengthening the Chemical and Biological Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Regimes.” Frontiers in Political Science, vol. 4, 2022. Frontiershttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpos.2022.805426.

Gerstein, Daniel. “Could the Bioweapons Treaty Be Another Tool for Addressing Pandemics?” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 12 Mar. 2021, https://thebulletin.org/2021/03/could-the-bioweapons-treaty-be-another-tool-for-addressing-pandemics/.

Huigang, Liang, et al. “Development of and Prospects for the Biological Weapons Convention.” Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity, vol. 4, no. 1, June 2022, pp. 50–53. ScienceDirecthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobb.2021.11.003.

Lim, Yong-Bee. “As Bioweapons Negotiators Prepare to Meet amid a Pandemic and Torrents of Disinformation, Can They Accomplish Anything?” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 15 July 2022, https://thebulletin.org/2022/07/as-bioweapons-negotiators-prepare-to-meet-amid-a-pandemic-and-torrents-of-disinformation-can-they-accomplish-anything/.

Littlewood, Jez. Potential Outcomes of the Ninth BWC Review Conference. UNIDIR, 21 Mar. 2022.  https://doi.org/10.37559/WMD/2021/BWC03.

Revill, James, et al. Preparing for Success at the Ninth Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Review. UNIDIR, 6 Apr. 2021.  https://doi.org/10.37559/WMD/21/BWC/01.

Compliance, Monitoring, and Review

Chevrier, Marie Isabelle. “Compliance Mechanisms and Their Implementation: The Contrast between the Biological and Chemical Weapons Conventions.” The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 27, no. 4–6, Sept. 2020, pp. 475–86. https://doi.org/10.1080/10736700.2020.1878666.

Cropper, Nicholas, Rath, Shrestha, and Teo, Ryan. Creating a Verification Protocol for the Biological Weapons Convention: A Modular-Incremental Approach. June 2022, p. 16, https://www.nti.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/Creating-a-Verification-Protocol_FINAL_June2022.pdf.

Drobysz, Sonia. “Verification and Implementation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.” The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 27, no. 4–6, Sept. 2020, pp. 487–97. https://doi.org/10.1080/10736700.2020.1823102.

Jeremias, Gunnar, and Mirko Himmel. “Can Everyone Help Verify the Bioweapons Convention? Perhaps, via Open Source Monitoring.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, vol. 72, no. 6, Nov. 2016, pp. 412–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/00963402.2016.1240487.

Kane, Angela, et al. Closing the Gap: Establishing a New UN Mechanism for Discerning the Source of Pandemics of Unknown Origins. 25 Apr. 2022, https://www.europeanleadershipnetwork.org/commentary/closing-the-gap-establishing-a-new-un-mechanism-for-discerning-the-source-of-pandemics-of-unknown-origins/.

Klotz, Lynn C. “The Biological Weapons Convention Protocol Should Be Revisited.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 15 Nov. 2019, https://thebulletin.org/2019/11/the-biological-weapons-convention-protocol-should-be-revisited/.

Kraatz-Wadsack, Gabriele. “Experience in Biological Monitoring in Iraq.” The Trench, vol. 4, Oct. 2022, https://www.the-trench.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/HN004-BW-Monitoring-in-Iraq-Kraatz-Wadsack.pdf.

Kraatz-Wadsack, Gabriele. “Monitoring and Verification in the Biological-Weapons Area.” The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 27, no. 4–6, Sept. 2020, pp. 499–505. https://doi.org/10.1080/10736700.2020.1865629.

Lentzos, Filippa. Compliance and Enforcement in the Biological Weapons Regime. The United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 5 Dec. 2019.  https://doi.org/10.37559/WMD/19/WMDCE4.

McLeish, Caitríona, and Joshua R. Moon. “Sitting on the Boundary: The Role of Reports in Investigations into Alleged Biological-Weapons Use.” The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 27, no. 4–6, Sept. 2020, pp. 525–40. https://doi.org/10.1080/10736700.2020.1872968.

Mezzour, Ghita, et al. “A Socio-Computational Approach to Predicting Bioweapon Proliferation.” IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems, vol. 5, no. 2, June 2018, pp. 458–67.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TCSS.2018.2813529.

Millett, Piers, et al. Biological Weapons Convention: Feasibility of On-Site Verification. 4213018, 31 May 2022. Social Science Research Networkhttps://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=4213018.

Revill, James, John Borrie, and Richard Lennane. Back To The Future For Verification In The Biological Disarmament Regime? UNIDIR, June 2022.  https://doi.org/10.37559/WMD/22/BWC/02.

Revill, James, John Borrie, Pavel Podvig, et al. Compliance and Enforcement: Lessons from across WMD-Related Regimes. UNIDIR, 19 Dec. 2019, https://doi.org/10.37559/WMD/19/WMDCE6.

Shearer, Matthew, et al. BWC Assurance: Increasing Certainty in BWC Compliance. 2022040051, Preprints, 7 Apr. 2022. Preprints.orghttps://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202204.0051.v1.

Walker, John R. “Reflections on the 2001 BWC Protocol and the Verification Challenge.” The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 27, no. 4–6, Sept. 2020, pp. 507–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/10736700.2020.1865635.

Wilburn, Jennifer, et al. “Identifying Potential Emerging Threats through Epidemic Intelligence Activities—Looking for the Needle in the Haystack?” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 89, Dec. 2019, pp. 146–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.10.011.

Education and Awareness-Raising

Bakerlee, Chris, et al. “Common Misconceptions About Biological Weapons.” Briefer, vol. 12, Dec. 2020, https://councilonstrategicrisks.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Common-Misconceptions-About-Biological-Weapons_BRIEFER-12_2020_12_7.pdf.

Balmer, Brian. “‘Science Was Digging Its Own Grave’: The Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom and the Campaign against Chemical and Biological Warfare.” The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 27, no. 4–6, Sept. 2020, pp. 323–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/10736700.2020.1838703.

Dando, Malcolm, et al. “Towards an Aspirational (Ethical) Code under the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention: Engaging the Life Science Community.” CBW Magazine: Journal on Chemical and Biological Weapons, vol. 14, no. 1–2, 1–2, 2021, pp. 4–23. https://www.idsa.in/cbwmagazine/towards-an-aspirational-ethical-code-under-the-btwc

Dao, K., et al. “Building a Culture of Biosafety, Biosecurity, and Responsible Conduct in the Life Sciences: A View from Mali.” GET Journal of Biosecurity and One Health, vol. 1, no. 1, May 2022. https://doi.org/10.36108/GJOBOH/2202.10.0120.

Fan, Victoria, et al. The Inclusive Cost of Pandemic Influenza Risk. w22137, National Bureau of Economic Research, Mar. 2016, p. w22137.  https://doi.org/10.3386/w22137.

Gronvall, Gigi Kwik, et al. “The Biological Weapons Convention Should Endorse the Tianjin Biosecurity Guidelines for Codes of Conduct.” Trends in Microbiology, Oct. 2022. ScienceDirecthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2022.09.014.

Inglesby, Thomas V., and Amesh A. Adalja, editors. Global Catastrophic Biological Risks. Springer International Publishing, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36311-6.

Millett, Piers, and Andrew Snyder-Beattie. “Existential Risk and Cost-Effective Biosecurity.” Health Security, vol. 15, no. 4, Aug. 2017, pp. 373–83. https://doi.org/10.1089/hs.2017.0028.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. The National Academies Press, 2018, https://doi.org/10.17226/25154.

Nixdorff, Kathryn. “International Biosecurity Governance Evolution within the Biological Weapons Convention.” CBWNet Working Paper, no. 03, Nov. 2022, https://cbwnet.org/media/pages/publications/working-paper/biosecurity-governance-evolution-within-the-bwc/592b386201-1668500542/cbwnet-wp-03_international-biosecurity-governance-evolution-within-the-bwc.pdf.

Novossiolova, Tatyana, et al. “Strengthening Biological Security after COVID-19: Using Cartoons for Engaging Life Science Stakeholders with the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC).” Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity, vol. 4, no. 1, June 2022, pp. 68–74. ScienceDirecthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobb.2022.03.001.

World Health Organization, editor. Global Guidance Framework for the Responsible Use of the Life Sciences: Mitigating Biorisks and Governing Dual-Use Research. 13 Sept. 2022, https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/9789240056107.

Xue, Yang, et al. “Building and Implementing a Multi-Level System of Ethical Code for Biologists under the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) of the United Nations.” Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity, vol. 3, no. 2, Dec. 2021, pp. 108–19. ScienceDirecthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobb.2021.09.001.

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